Shock is a medical term used to describe the body's response to severe trauma. It is classified into four types: distributive shock, hemorrhagic shock, cardiogenic shock and hypovolemic shock.
1: Distributive Shock
Distributive shock occurs when blood flow is impaired due to vasodilation.
Distributive shock, also known as vasodilatory shock, happens when the blood vessels excessively dilate and blood pressure is lowered to a dangerous level. The drop in blood pressure results in a lower amount of blood that can reach the organs. Distributive shock is a life-threatening medical emergency.
Distributive shock happens when blood vessels lose the ability to constrict properly.
Distributive shock occurs when blood flow is not evenly distributed throughout the body. The three subtypes of distributive shock are septic shock, anaphylactic/anaphylactoid shock, and neurogenic shock.
Septic shock is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by infection.
It occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream and release toxins that damage tissue and organs. Symptoms include low blood pressure, rapid heart rate, and confusion. Treatment involves antibiotics and aggressive supportive care.
Anaphylactic Shock/Anaphylactoid Shock
Anaphylactic shock is a life-threatening allergic reaction.
Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid shock is a severe allergic reaction that can be triggered by food, medication, or insect bites. Symptoms include difficulty breathing, swelling of the throat and tongue, dizziness, hives, rapid heart rate and a drop in blood pressure. This type of shock can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
Neurogenic shock is caused by a disorder or injury that affects the nerves.
Neurogenic shock is caused by a disorder or injury that affects the nerves. This type of shock results from problems with the autonomic nervous system (the system that controls basic functions like breathing and heart rate). Neurogenic shock can be caused by spinal cord injuries, stroke, multiple sclerosis, or brain damage. Symptoms include low blood pressure, extreme weakness, and confusion. The drop in blood pressure can lead to organ damage and even death. Treatment usually involves supportive care and medication to raise blood pressure.
2: Hypovolemic Shock
Hypovolemic shock is caused by blood or fluid loss. The body has too little blood volume.
Hypovolemic shock can be the result of internal or external bleeding, burns, or dehydration. The body goes into hypovolemic shock when it doesn't have enough blood to circulate properly.
The two types of hypovolemic shock are hemorrhagic shock and non-hemorrhagic shock.
Hemorrhagic shock is caused by excessive bleeding.
Hemorrhagic shock is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a rupture in an artery or vein, causing blood to flow out in large quantities.
This can lead to a decrease in blood pressure and an insufficient supply of oxygen to the tissues. If not treated promptly, hemorrhagic shock can lead to organ failure and death.
Non-hemorrhagic shock is caused by a loss of blood volume outside of the body, such as from burns, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating and dehydration.
Non-hemorrhagic shock can be serious and life-threatening. It happens when the body doesn't have enough blood to circulate properly and the organs don't get the oxygen they need.
3: Cardiogenic Shock
Cardiogenic shock occurs due to heart problems.
Cardiogenic shock occurs when the heart isn't pumping enough blood and oxygen to the brain, other organs, and other body parts. Blood is no longer reaching the tissues to meet their needs.
Cardiogenic shock can be caused by a heart attack, an illness that damages the heart muscle, or a pulmonary embolus (a blockage in one of the large veins that carry blood away from the heart).
Cardiogenic shock occurs when the heart is not able to pump blood adequately. This can lead to death if not treated quickly.
4: Obstructive Shock
Obstructive shock occurs when arteries or veins are blocked.
Obstructive shock occurs when something blocks blood flow through the arteries or veins. This type of shock is usually caused by a clot or blockage that prevents blood from reaching the heart, lungs, or brain. Symptoms of obstructive shock include low blood pressure, fast heart rate, and difficulty breathing.
The blockage may cause low blood pressure, organ failure, and even death. Treatment involves removing the obstruction and providing supportive care.
Signs and Symptoms of Shock
Shock is a medical emergency that occurs when the body is not getting enough blood flow. Signs and symptoms of shock include pale or blue skin, weak pulse, confusion, anxiety, and shortness of breath. If you think someone is in shock, call 911 immediately.
First Aid Treatment for Shock
Shock is a medical emergency that can be caused by a variety of factors, including severe blood loss, heart attack, and allergic reactions. First aid for shock includes laying the person down, elevating their feet, and calling 911. It is important to keep the person calm and comfortable until medical help arrives.
There are four types of shock: distributive shock, hypovolemia shock, cardiogenic shock, and obstructive shock. Each type of shock is caused by a different problem. All of them will eventually result in a drop in blood pressure, lower blood flow to organs, organ failure, and death. If you notice one of these symptoms, it is important to seek medical care immediately.